Web 2.0技术支持的电视收看指南的知识管理系统

2010-02-15 00:00:00 评论(0)
这是我上“Business Intelegence and Knowledge Management”这门课的时候与其他三位同学合写的一篇论文,使用CommonKADS方法论,提出一种知识管理系统以支持基于Web 2.0技术的电视节目收看指南,完稿于2009年6月1日。

Knowledge Management System for Web 2.0 Technology-Supported Electronic Television Program Guide

Wenchao He      Michael Jefferies Shankai Zhang Han Qin

School of Information System and Technology

Faculty of Informatics, University of Wollongong, Australia

Executive Summary

Electronic Program Guides have been an integral part of TV and Cable broadcasting providing, online and TV set feedback to the user directly. However, as the available TV channels and programs keep increasing, digital TV cable providers find it difficult to provide the right users with the right programs at the right time. In this context, a Web 2.0 technology-supported solution has been proposed to develop personalised TV program guide to overcome the information overload problem.

This report has used the CommonKADS method and social analysis approaches to identify the problems and opportunities of the electronic TV program guides which have emerged because TV channels and programs keep growing dramatically. It is believed that if cable providers solve these problems, they will attract more subscribers. In the proposed Web 2.0 technology-supported solution, profiles of users and programs are used to create personalised TV program guides within an automatic matching mechanism. To support this innovation, the organizations have to redesign the enterprise architecture and reengineer the business process. New departments such as information system management department and customer relationship management department need to be created. Relevant ITinfrastructure should be set up. It is predicted that the solution will increase the organisations’ revenue and improve their image in the public. Nevertheless, to implement the solution, the organisations should be concerned about the immaturity of the new practice, the at-risk smaller content providers and fake message attack.

Based on the comprehensive analysis, it is recommended that the organisations should construct the two-way communication channels between the organisations and the users, set up the profile matching mechanism, complete the business process rengineering and enterprise architecture redesign in time, and review the new solution as it is being implemented.

1    Introduction

1.1    Background

Program guides are designed to provide the users a categorical view of the content that can be viewed within a given day, week, or month. With the expansion of the internet capabilities such as Web 2.0, Electronic Program Guides have been an integral part of TV and Cable broadcasting, providing online and TV set feedback to the user directly.

1.2    Problem Statement

The rapid expansion of television content and channels has made theinformation on TV program guides overloaded. Users are not informed relevantprograms at the right time and they find it difficult to choose between thevast amount of content and channels. The problem is Cable providers andBroadcasters have no Program guide that is expandable in the near future.  Users often have their viewable content limited too a number of large content providers often overlooking some relevantprograms from small content providers.

1.3    Method

The approach that will be taken will be firstly to develop an organisation modelling methodology to contextualise the organisation and problem. This will be done in the CommonKADs framework (Schreiber et al.2000) starting with the OM-1 identifying the problems and opportunities that have arisen, then secondly the OM-2 which analyses variant aspects of the organisation in context. The next step is to break down the business processes in the OM-3 to identify details of critical tasks, while the final OM-4 is to classify knowledge assets in the organisation.

The social analysis will be an integrated approach involving the conclusions drawn from each organisation model of CommonKADs. This section will focus directly on providing social theory to link problem with potentialanswers. Finally, a business feasibility analysis will be conducted using the results from the CommonKADs analysis and social analysis of the TV program guide information overloaded problem.

1.4    Thesis Statement

This report has proposed the solution to be a user profile oriented program guide supported by Web 2.0 technology. The solution has been analysed and derived by the CommonKADs framework and social analysis. The businessfeasibility analysis has demonstrated that the proposed solution is practicable for Cable providers and broadcasting providers, although minor risks have been identified with the proposed solution.

1.5    Outline of the Report

The report will initially discuss the background of the problem where the problems and opportunities of Cable providers and broadcasting provider sand their organisational contexts will be analysed using OM-1 to propose a potential solution.

The second section will include the Organisational Analysis which identifies the organisation structure, processes, people and resources. This will also include the knowledge resources within the organisation and particular cultural and power issues surrounding the organisational environment.

The third part of this report will focus on the task breakdown and knowledge assets. The process or task breakdown will identify critical knowledge components.

The fourth major component of this report is the Business feasibility which will draw together conclusions from the CommonKADs methodology and the social analysis of the issue at hand. This will discuss the proposed changes to organisation structure, including expected organisational benefits and potential risks.

The final component will make recommendations in the form of a proposed solution to the problem defined by the CommonKADs framework. This will recommend the user profile oriented electronic program guides to solve this problem.

OM-1: Problems

* Information overload – continually increasing channels and content to display to user

* Monopolistic medium – larger broadcasters dominating the market with the smaller content providers being left out

* One way communication from Content providers to users/viewers/

2.1.2    Opportunities

The first opportunity is that Cable providers and Broadcasters could receive significantly more users and subscribers by providing more content and programs (such as to equal that of the Internet).

The second perceived opportunity will be that from a users point of view, in which viewers will have significantly more content and programs to choose from without being limited to Cable sponsored channels.

OM-1: Opportunities

* Potential to increase subscribers and revenue by increasing range of content available

* Significantly more content and channels available to users for viewing

2.2    Organisational Contexts

The purpose of Cable providers and Broadcasting providers is to provide the link between content and viewers so that TV programs can be accessed and viewed on their Television sets. Cable providers refer to organisations that provide availability to several hundreds of channels by either satellite or cable. They do not necessarily produce the content, which is generally done by the content providers.

The key players involved in the Cable providers are the employees, management and technicians.  On an external level are organisations that provide the content which produce the programs and actual content and the broadcast organisations which provide the link between content organisations and the end user (the viewer).

Cable providers or Digital television providers provide numerous channels and links to different content providers in order to receive subscribers – the main source of their revenue and livelihood. Clearly the only strategy is to increase the number of subscribers to their network by increasing their content spread and availability. To do this they must be able to cope with expanding technologies and competition such as that from the Internet. They must also be able to provide content from the smaller productions by advertising their programs to viewers, rather than focusing on the largerorganisations.

OM-1: Organisational Context

Mission Statement

To provide a large number and range of channels, content to subscribers for there entertainment, education and enjoyment.

External Factors/Actors

* Cable providers – the focus including employees, management, technical and support staff

* External organisations – Content and Broadcast providers

* Competition from the Internet, other cable, satellite and digital providers


To increase the number of subscribers to their network by improving the range of their content and services by including more channels and accessibility. This includes providing a more suitable Electronic program guide that covers the increasing number of programs and channels.

Value Chain and Drivers

Providing channels and content to subscribers who make up the majority of their sales and revenue.

2.3    Social Analysis

The TV medium has been predominately a monopolistic industry regardless of country with a small number of large content providers dominating the primetime space. For example, in Australiathe two major cable providers are Foxtel and Optus. They provide a link between content providers and the viewer. Their services are often highly competitive with the duopoly often creating an extremely competitive environment each trying to outdo each other in terms of content, availability and quality.

One of the problems stated in this first organisation model is the fact that smaller content providers often are left out of advertising by broadcast and cable providers about these programs. Possibly the reason for this is that the content is simply just not valued by viewers, or on the other hand the viewer has no knowledge of these programs being available. In Davenport’sarticle on Information politics, Davenport talks about market based models for information governance and demand for this information. In this article, Davenports states that some organisations employa market based model for determining demand of information, such as that to identify the “popularity of different information entities” (Davenport and Prusak 1997) and focus their resources on that information.

Perhaps in the Digital TV industry, smaller programs are not really left out, but rather market forces have determined the value of that content to minor in terms of the Cable providers.

2.4    Proposed Solution

The proposed solution is to utilise Web 2.0 technology to increase the range of content available to users by removing or eliminating the traditional limited project selection in order to create user oriented profiles for personalised television viewing. This will provide access to a larger number of content providers and channels regardless of their organisational size in order to reduce the hold larger content providers have on cable, satellite and digital services.

OM-1: Proposed Solution

* User oriented profiles to create relevant personalised television programs

* Utilising Web 2.0 Technology to draw together many different content providers and resources

* Extend the range of content available for the users viewing

* Reduce the inequality in television air time between smaller and larger content providers to increase the user’s pool of viewable content.

2.5    Problem Statement

The clear problem is the fact that the range of viewable and accessible content is rapidly growing to point where digital, cable and satellite providers have to considered options to expand methods to allow their subscribers to access this information especially if it is relevant to their needs and desires. The need for equal advertisement and air time for all providers will also need to be addressed by these providers in order to satisfy the subscribers of their services. Cable, Satellite and digital providers should be capable of delivering content that is suitable and relevant from arange of different services in order to meet these requirements.

3    Organisational Analysis

3.1    Organisation Structure

The Television industry has many organisations that make up the entire TV industry including the Cable, Satellite and Digital providers, the production or content providers and the broadcasting stations or providers. The organisation or specific organisations in the context for this project are the cable, satellite and digital providers. These provide the specific link between content providers and the viewers. Since the project specifies no single business or organisation, we focused on a generic model of the TV media industry elaborating on the organisations the problems directly affect – that being the cable, satellite and digital providers.

Typical organisations have a strategic management group suchas the CEO or Board of Directors. These are the figureheads and lead individualcable, satellite and digital TV provider’s organisation. The next leveltypically includes middle management or department heads, but for this diagramthey are grouped with the department itself. The two aspects of Cable providersare those involved in the technical side, including installations, program lineups and research and development. On the other hand we have supportdepartments, including accounting, legal and call centre departments. Thesepurely provide backup operations.

3.2  Business Processe

The current traditional process of conducting business in cable, satellite and digital television providers are to gather resources from content providers, mostly large and known providers. These programs are transmitted to the user by either cable or satellite facilities at which the local house or place has a receiver (digital set top box or cable receiver)which allows users to access all the channels and content provided by the cable TV provider. At this time, the user chooses between different programs and depending on the relevance to his/her desire and needs to choose the most appropriate to view.

OM-2:  Business Processes

OM-2:  Business Processes

3.3    People Involved

There are several key actors/people involved within this organisation. Since we established that the Cable Providers are the organisation in focus we have actors such as technical staff, support andoperation staff, middle line management and strategic management. Theseinternal actors can be seen in the organisational structure chart in 3.1. There are also external organisations and actors associated with this organisation. Although they are not directly related with the services provided by the cableprovider/s, they do have some interaction. These include competitors, content providers, broadcast providers, media authorities and customers.

OM-2:  People Involved

OM-2:  People Involved

3.4    Resources Involved

There are several different resources involved in this organisation from gathering content to communicating it with the end user (the viewer). These include video or TV program archives, the methods of transmitting to the user via cable connection, satellite or digital devices andend user devices such as Digital television, set top boxes, satellite dishes orcable receivers. Technical staff requires a detailed amount of knowledge inthese respective areas including installation, operation and maintenance. Operation staff also requires accounting/billing systems and accounts to maintenance the users current status, payments and other details. This could typically be a database.

3.5  Knowledge Resources Involved

Some of the knowledge resources include Program databases, such as program running times, classifications, genre, channels, program descriptions and actors. Another knowledge item would be the user interests which refers to the preferences of the users in terms of the TV programs. This knowledge aspect would often be categorised and easy to assimilate into understandable means. In the same sense we could also understand knowledge such as program dislikes which refers to programs that have never been viewed or accessed by a specific user. This could help to identify the programs that the user may not be interested in. The final knowledge component is the content type which may represent several different mediums or programs. The idea is to understand the many forms of media and content.

OM-2:  Knowledge Resources





This knowledge refers to the specific information about a program including program feedback, running times, genre and classifications


User interests

This knowledge item is the concept of drawing together the likes of the user to form a user oriented profile.


User dislikes

The user may have several dislikes about programs. This knowledge could help build a better user profile to help select the most relevant and deselect the most irrelevant.


Content type

This knowledge refers to the categorisation of a media or content type. Data about Data (Metadata).


3.6  Culture and Power Issues

There are several issues with the organisation that are important to discuss. Cable, Satellite and Digital TV providers are notorious for providing TV programs produced by the ‘big guys’. Most cable organisations have strategic alliances with large production or content providers. Another issue revolves around the censorship of particular content and the moderation of such information. Media authorities play a key role in this aspect, and organisations such as Cable providers must abide by these rules and regulations otherwise serious consequences can arise. Communications in organisations likeCable providers often are rigid and sensitive; as such programs are often linked to broadcasting rights.

OM-2:  Culture and power issues

* Large content providers strategically aligned with cable, satellite and digital providers

* Censorship of particular information and content – mostly rules and regulations set by authorities.

* Broadcasting rights within an organisation – who has the right to broadcast particular content and TV programs.

3.7    Social Analysis

The frameworks of every organisation are unique and often have different business practices and processes to get tasks done. Cable providers for example are no different. The OM-2 Model identified the variable aspects of the cable provider’s generic model showing the business processes andorganisational structure.

Firstly, the business processes as shown in section 3.2 clearly indicate a one way method of communicating, with the users being limited to the content that is provided by the cable networks. Perhaps this is a direct result of the organisation structure employed by these Cable Providers. Davenport’sarticle on Information Politics discusses how different organisation structures can dictate the way information is governed and transferred in a particular organisation. Part of the problem in Cable TV organisations is that they choose to provide a feudalist, almost monopolistic style of communicating information around the organisation, including to their customers. The “monarch” could be seen as the entire internal organisation whichdecides which programs and content will be presented to the user and “controls how information will beinterpreted” (Davenport andPrusak 1997).

Perhaps traditional organisational focus on business-orientation has been phased out or has no room in the new technological age of the semantic Web2.0. The focus should shift towards a customer oriented style of business, such as gathering feedback and meeting the customer’s needs. The solution to the problem should enable Cable providers to step into the future of business, focusing on meeting the needs of customers and clients by implementing a technological solution to expand their viewing portfolio and choosing to take important information from their most valued asset – the customer.

4    Task and Knowledge Analysis

4.1  Task Break-Down

The worksheet OM-3 depicts the task break-down in the previous present of main business process. The whole business process is generally divided into three parts: Gathering resources, Transmitting process and Users choosing. To finish the whole business process, the tasks must be finished in a sequential order beginning from the providers’ side, going through the middleman transmitters, and finally ending at the users’ side.

Each part differentiates at its knowledge assets involved. Each part differentiates at its knowledge assets involved as they are different role players in the entire business chain without many activities sharing happening. In the initiator’s side, as the origin of the whole supply process which is really decided the meaning and quality of whole TV industry, the speciality evaluation knowledge and the insight of whole market and customer’s demands are more needed to be special in. The second task, from the transmitter’ side, knowledge of technical aspects is given more consideration including devices manipulation and maintain. Last part to provide a product which in here is not completely and well design for every consumer to be use is the aim of the whole process. Users play the key role in the using process, so they are assumed they armed with knowledge of recognizing information and device manipulation.

The high significances are given to tasks of gathering resources and transmitting process considering the important role initiators play and the ensuring of product safety and availability transmitter need to undertake. The choose of TV programs is really upon individual preference and users choosing is the end point of the whole business process also means this part will not influence in others. So the significance of the knowledge assets in the user side is put in a low level.

OM-3:  Process Breakdown



Performed By


Knowledge Asset

Knowledge Intensive?



Gathering resources

digital television providers;

content providers

Various Locations

Database management, TV content evaluation,  Marketing






cable TV providers

Cable TV Station

Devices manipulation, Devices maintain, Coordination with customers




Users choosing


Users’ Homes

Recognizing information, Device manipulation



4.2      Knowledge Components

The OM-4 table gives a description of main knowledge assets involved in the whole TV business process. Due to different department functions and the role department play in the whole business process, different knowledge from a number of different areas is assessed. Knowledge of TV content evaluation and Marketing is so important because they are the preparation of whole business activity and the origin of information overload in TV channels. During the assess process, interaction with consumers was found is the key area those two knowledge assets overlook. In the aspect of user, it is hard to identify all information the providers provide as information is overloaded and the form of presenting information is ineffective.

OM-4:  Knowledge Assets

Knowledge Asset

Possessed By

Used In

Right Form?

Right Place?

Right Time?

Right Quality?

Database management

Technical department of providers

Task 1





TV content evaluation

Marketing department of providers

Task 1

No, interaction with users are needed



No, too much channel information


Marketing department of providers

Task 1


No, can get benefits from the interaction with consumers

No, cannot get response from users in time

No, can be improved much more from the response  of consumers

Devices manipulation

Technical department of transmitters

Task 2





Devices maintain

Technical department of transmitters

Task 2





Coordination with customers

Services departments of transmitters

Task 2





Recognizing information


Task 3

No, information overload and hard to identify




Device manipulation


Task 3





4.3    Social Analysis

Firstly, traditionally, the old way of operating the whole TV business process is a single direction of passing on which is from the initiators content providers to end points consumers. There is no information sharing between providers and users. The information governance is more like Information Monarchy which is defined in the Davenport article. Information Monarchy emphasises that most of a company’s information is controlled by one individual or function (Davenport and Prusak 1997). So, the knowledge assets providers’ uses are hard to much relate to users’ interest and more prefer to consider about themselves benefits. Web 2.0 stresses on participation of consumers’ side. For example, the solution of customized profiles will increase the interaction between TV providers and users. So, web 2.0 make a change in the information political mode in the TV business process. The information political mode more inclines to Information Anarchy. Information Anarchy is every individual fends for him or herself and defines information on their own terms (Davenport and Prusak 1997). Changes in the information political mode for TV business process will result in the knowledge assets involved changing from primitive functions. The new role of knowledge assets involved need be redefined in their functions. For example, marketing department of providers need to more concentrate on users’ profiles management and marketing strategy based on users’ profiles after the Web 2.0 idea is applied.

Secondly, the utilising of the Web 2.0 notion emphasizes the change from the form of tacit knowledge personal feeling to explicit knowledge TV programs preference. Two dimensions are indicated for tacit knowledge. One is the technical dimension which often referred to as “know-how” encompassing the kind of informal personal skills or crafts and one is the cognitive dimension which is made of beliefs, ideals, values, schemata, and mental models that are deeply ingrained in us (Nonaka and Konno 1998). On the other side, explicit knowledge point at the way of expressing in words and numbers which are shared in the form of data, scientific formulate specifications, manuals and the like (Nonaka and Konno 1998). In the situation of TV users, most of their tacit knowledge is the cognitive dimension type. The change from personal feeling to TV programs preference benefits in users locating programs and not to cost another time to find something uncertain.

5    Business Feasibility

5.1    New Organisation Structure

The Web 2.0 technology-supported solution has taken users’ perspective into account when providing TV program guide. This will have an impact on the organisational structure. While rethinking and redesigning TV cable providers’ operating processes, we should focus on the
organisation’s core competencies in order to achieve dramatic improvements in organisational performance (Lowenthal 1994). With applying the proposed solution, TV cable providers are to enhance their core competencies in the user management area. This includes a technical part as well as non-technical support. In the new organisation structure, two new departments will be created to support the new business processes. One is the Information System Department, in which there are several function units such as user interface design and maintenance, database management, information system administrators, IT infrastructure management, etc. Internally, this department will be technically in charge of the new system to collect, store, and make use of the information about users’ preference and viewing behavior.

The other new department is Customer Relationship Management Department. In the Web 2.0 technology solution context, such department should have three new sub-units, which will be online community moderation, program guide editing and user feedback management. This department will be in charge of initiating online interaction amongst users and between users and the organisation. The interaction can be supported by social networking service based on users’ common interests, discussion board, program rating and commenting. To make use of the information and knowledge generated by the users, it is necessary to reorganise the data for the program guide editing (e.g., an introduction to a show includes a digest of users’ discussion on the actors/actresses who will appear in that show). Furthermore, if users provide the organisation with suggestion or complaints, such information should also be organised and sent to relevant departments within the organisation.

New Organisational Structure

5.2      Expected Benefits for the Organisation

5.2.1 Increase of Revenue

As the digital TV cable providers apply the Web 2.0 technology-supported solution into practice, users’ satisfaction may be increased because they will have a better experience of using the digital TV broadcasting service with personalised guidance. This will lead to the increase of the organisations’ revenue as potential users are more likely to subscribe to the service. The root of the increase of revenue is that the new solution can enhance the intellectual capital of the organisations. Intellectual capital is the intellectual material – knowledge, information, intellectual property, experience – that can be put to create wealth (Stewart 1997). The activities and the behaviours of the users within the Web 2.0 framework keep generating such intellectual material and convey it to the organisations.

An organisation’s intellectual property is indicated by various factors, which include finance, customer, human, process, renewal and development (Kaplan and Norton 1992). Figure 1 is the balanced scorecard by Kaplan and Norton (1992), in which customer perspective is recognised as one of the important components of measuring an organisation’s intellectual capital. If we focus on “entities” instead of “perspectives”, the core value of intellectual capital is from human capital, organisational capital and customer capital (see Figure 2) (Petrash 1996). Thus, it is obvious that digital TV users’ satisfaction and feedback are forming a critical part of the cable providers’ intellectual property. The new solution will be facilitating the transition from customers’ experience into the organisations’ managed knowledge asset. This asset will be ultimately part of the organisations’ intellectual capital which is expected to create tangible benefit from sales.

· Figure 1 The Balanced Scorecard by Kaplan and Noron (1992)

Intellectual Capital Framework by Petrash (1996)

· Figure 2 Intellectual Capital Framework by Petrash (1996)

5.2.2 Improvement of the Organisation’s Image

By applying the Web 2.0 technology-supported solution, the organisations’ public images will be managed and improved. Traditionally, much research into corporate image concluded that corporate image is determined mostly by the organisation per se (e.g., logos, advertisement, business management, etc.) (Dowling 1986; Wreford 1987). However, more and more researchers have found that image is also determined by both environmental and personal factors of the audience member. The combination of all these factors becomes a part of the impression-formation process and produces an overall perceptually-based audience image (Haedrich 1993; Moffitt 1994; Williams and Moffitt 1997).

Social networking activities amongst current and potential customers of the organisations are personal factors that influence the organisations’ image. In the traditional one way communication mode between digital TV program guide and current customers, it is difficult for the organisations to perceive, manage and response to such personal factors. To a large extent, the organisations’ image is at risk as long as the external factors are not controllable. This difficulty is determined by the nature of the knowledge generated during people’s socialisation. Such knowledge is usually about people’s ideas, feelings and experience and it is considered as tacit knowledge (Nonaka and Konno 1998).

However, if the organisations adopt the Web 2.0 technology-supported solution, such communication will be made explicit because customers are encouraged to use specific figures, words and/or choices to convey their preferences, feelings, ideas, and experiences on the mediums managed by the organisations. The organisations then combine the information from the customers into their service and response quickly once they receive negative feedback from the customers (e.g., low rating of a program, complaint on the online forum, etc.) so that the organisations’ image will be protected and improved as the customers will perceive the organisations’ respecting their feedback.

5.3  Risks of the Change

5.3.1   Immaturity of the New Solution

Although Web2.0 is used for EPG, it is still not mature enough for matching exactly the needs to the customer. Due to the high development of the current Internet technology, the organisation and the people can be connected much easier than ever before by network. Even by using the most advanced technology, some information can still not match the customer’s needs. So there must be some balance between richness and reach (Evans and Wurster 1997). In our situation, although the Web 2.0 will be merged with the EPG, no one knows whether this combination can work well or not. In other words, whether the new technology can customize the needs to the customers is still a question. Probably, when a customer search for a particular program, although most relevant information will be listed, some programs still may not appear on the screen. Consequently, the customer may potentially miss some really important programs which relates to his/her demand, but he/she has assumed that the “machine” is correct and does not manually browse the traditional view of TV program guide.

5.3.2   Small Content Providers May Be Still at Risk in the New Solution

Due to the similarities of the program, the small companies’ channels are usually ranking behind the big ones. According to Macdonald (1998), if the piece of information is scarce, the value of that information is just like gold (Macdonald 1998). On the other hand, if the information is very common and nearly every body knows, the value of that information will become poorer and poorer. In our situation, once both the big content provider and the small one provide the same or the similar programs, the EPG must list the big company’s content in front of the small company due to the strength of the big corporation. For most customers, they usually look at the first couple of programs and neglect the rest ones which may still affect the small company’s advertisement revenue. Thus, in order to survive in the competitive market, the small company has to do more brainstorming and try to be innovative and create some unique programs that the big company doesn’t have so that their programs can be the top one. As a result, they can attract more advertisements and their revenue can be guaranteed.

5.3.3   Fake Message Attack

Since small broadcasters can utilize the web to develop the online community, it is possible for the rival to post the fake message to criticize the company’s reputation.  According to Green (2000), in order to survive in today’s competitive world, a company has to find a good competition way to survive. The competition includes the normal competition and abnormal competition which most companies will take advantage in the market (Green 2000). In our situation, some companies may use the abnormal competition approach. As all the comments posted via the online portal could be anonymous and could be with fake identities attached, it is easy for a competitor to text any fake and bad information on the notice board without worrying about being sued by the law. When an audience reads the message, he/she may probably believe it and even transfer it into other forums. Consequently, the company’s reputation will be affected negatively and face the potential threat of losing customers.

6    Recommendations

6.1    Construction of a Two-Way Communication Channel

The existing one-way communication channel between the organisations and the customers stops the organisations from learning the customers’ program view preference, interests, feelings, etc. Such learning need is increasing as the information about programs seems to be overloaded because the digital TV cable providers have to provide the viewers with more relevant information. A two-way communication channel can facilitate the information flow from the viewers to the broadcasters. The interaction between the organisations and the customers helps increase the quality of the service as the presentation of the program guides can be modified according to viewers’ feedback.

6.2    Construction of the Profiles for Users and Programs and the Matching Mechanism

To automate the process of providing the viewers with personalised program guides, the organisations need to build up the machine-readable dynamic profiles for the users and the programs and to set up the matching mechanism for the program recommender. Users should be able to input their preference and interest into their profiles and their program viewing behaviours (e.g., view history, viewing duration, viewing frequency, etc.) should be recorded and “learned” by the new system. On the other hand, content providers should provide metadata to describe the programs using a semantic approach (e.g., specifying intended audience groups). The richness of the metadata will determine the quality of the matching between the two kinds of profiles. For example, a user’s interest is comedy, but he/she just curtly inputs “laugh” when asked to define the preference. If there are sufficient metadata to describe all the comedy programs, the programs will still be recommended to the user instead of being recognised as not relevant to the user’s interest because he/she did not input “comedy”.

6.3    Business Process Reengineering and Enterprise Architecture Redesign

The new solution should have a significant impact on the organisations’ business processes. The focus of the change is the activities in relation to the users. In the past, the cable providers basically do not need to deal with much information from the users. With the new solution being applied, the organisations should reengineer their original business processes and redesign their enterprise architecture. This includes creating new departments to maintain and support the personalised TV program guide operation, rewriting different positions’ responsibilities and work flows, training new staff or old staff with new tasks assigned, setting up relevant IT infrastructure, configuring the new information system and database, asking relevant business partners to follow with the new processes, changing the marketing strategies, etc.

6.4    Reviewing the Solution

Because the new solution also has weakness, as it is being applied, the organisations should arrange review regularly and modify the solution when necessary. This review should involved relevant external experts, relevant internal staff, and end users. This will help the organisations identify and fix any problems associating with the knowledge management system which were not perceived or predicted before implementing the solution. As for the predicted problems (e.g., the recommendation mechanism may not work as intended, the smaller content providers are at risk, and fake message attack, etc.), the organisation should arrange corresponding resource to minimise the risks. For example, staff should be allocated to monitor the quality of the new program guide operation, to work with the smaller content providers to promote their infamous but potentially valuable programs to specific groups of viewers, and to control the message created and posted by the users.

7    Conclusion

This report has used the CommonKADS method and social analysis approaches to identify the problems and opportunities of the electronic TV program guides which have emerged because TV channels and programs keep growing dramatically. The main problems are that the information from the increasing TV channels and programs seems to be overloaded and in the traditional one-way communication mode, it is difficult for TV cable providers to provide the users with the right programs at the right time. On the users’ side, because there are too many choices and they are not familiar with most of the channels and programs, so they only rely on several major channels which leads to smaller content providers’ being left out.

Thus, it is believed that if cable providers solve these problems, they will attract more subscribers. A Web 2.0 technology-supported solution has been proposed to solve the problems. In the proposed solution, profiles of users and programs are used to create personalised TV program guides within an automatic matching mechanism. However, the current organisational structure and business processes do not support the new solution because the responsibilities of the people involved in the current structure and process have nothing to do with the new knowledge management system. Thus, it is necessary for the organisations to redesign the enterprise architecture and reengineer the business process. New departments such as information system management department and customer relationship management department need to be created. Relevant IT infrastructure should be set up. As the new solution being implemented, users’ tacit knowledge will be transferred to explicit knowledge on managed mediums and made available to the organisations. Such explicit knowledge will be used for TV program guide personalisation. As a result, the organisations’ revenue will be increased because the new solution helps them increase their “customer capital”.  On the other hand, the organisations’ image will be improved because the new solution helps them better manage and monitor their users’ social activities where their image is carried. Some risks of the solution have also been addressed. To implement the solution, the organisations should be concerned about the immaturity of the new practice, the at-risk smaller content providers and fake message attack.

Finally, based on the comprehensive analysis, it is recommended that the organisations should construct the two-way communication channels between the organisations and the users,  set up the profile matching mechanism,  complete the business process reengineering and enterprise architecture redesign in time, and review the new solution as it is being implemented.

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